For HIV-oblivious men the impact of dating place on UAI did not change by adding partner features, but it improved when adding lifestyle and drug use. It is difficult to evaluate the actual risk for HIV for these men: do they act as HIV negative guys who are trying to protect themselves from HIV infection, or as HIV-positive guys trying to protect their HIV-negative partner from HIV infection? A study by Horvath et al. Cheap hookers nearest Queensland. reported that 72% of men who were never tested for HIV, profiled themselves online as being HIV negative, which might be debatable if they're HIV positive and engage in UAI with HIV negative partners 12 Previously Matser et al. reported that 1.7% of the oblivious and sensed HIV negative MSM were analyzed HIV positive. The study population included the MSM reported in this study 15
Online dating wasn't correlated with UAI among HIV-negative guys, a finding in agreement with some previous studies, mainly among young men 21 , but in contrast with other studies 1 - 5 This may be because of the reality that most earlier studies compared sexual behavior of two groups of MSM rather than comparing two sexual behavior patterns within one group of men. Nonetheless it could also represent lay changes; maybe in the beginning of online dating a more high risk group of guys used the Internet, and over time online dating normalized and not as high risk MSM nowadays also make use of the Internet for dating.
An integral strength of this study was that it investigated the relationship between online dating and UAI among MSM who had recent sexual contact with both online and offline casual partners. Cheap Hookers near me QLD. This prevented bias caused by potential differences between guys only dating online and those just dating offline, a weakness of numerous previous studies. By recruiting participants at the greatest STI outpatient clinic in the Netherlands we could contain a great number of MSM, and prevent potential differences in guys tried through Internet or face to face interviewing, weaknesses in some previous studies 3 , 11
Among HIV positive men, in univariate analysis UAI was reported significantly more often with on-line associates than with offline partners. When correcting for associate characteristics, the effect of online/offline dating on UAI among HIV positive MSM became somewhat smaller and became non-significant; this implies that differences in partnership factors between online and offline partnerships are liable for the increased UAI in online established partnerships. This could be because of a mediating effect of more info on associates, (including perceived HIV status) on UAI, or to other factors. Among HIV-negative guys no effect of online dating on UAI was detected, either in univariate or in the multivariate models. Among HIV-unaware guys, online dating was connected with UAI but only essential when adding partner and partnership variables to the model.
In this large study among MSM attending the STI clinic in Amsterdam, we found no signs that online dating was independently related to a higher danger of UAI than offline dating. For HIV negative guys this dearth of assocation was clear (aOR = 0.94 95 % CI 0.59-1.48); among HIV-positive guys there was a nonsignificant association between online dating and UAI (aOR = 1.62 95 % CI 0.96-2.72). Taigum, Queensland Cheap Hookers. Simply among guys who suggested they weren't conscious of their HIV status (a little group in this study), UAI was more common with on-line than offline associates.
The amount of sex partners in the preceding 6months of the index was likewise connected with UAI (OR = 6.79 95 % CI 2.86-16.13 for those with 50 or more recent sex partners compared to those with fewer than 5 recent sex partners). UAI was significantly more likely if more sex acts had occurred in the partnership (OR = 16.29 95 % CI 7.07-37.52 for >10 sex acts within the venture compared to only one sex act). Other variables significantly associated with UAI were group sex within the partnership, and sex-related multiple drug use within partnership.
In multivariate model 3 (Tables 4 and 5 ), also including variants concerning sexual behaviour in the venture (sex-related multiple drug use, sex frequency and partner type), the independent effect of online dating place on UAI became somewhat stronger (though not significant) for the HIV positive men (aOR = 1.62 95 % CI; 0.96-2.72), but remained similar for HIV negative guys (aOR = 0.94 95 % CI 0.59-1.48). The effect of online dating on UAI became stronger (and essential) for HIV-oblivious men (aOR = 2.55 95 % CI 1.11-5.86) (Table 5 ).
In univariate analysis, UAI was significantly more prone to occur in online than in offline ventures (OR = 1.36 95 % CI 1.03-1.81) (Table 4 ). The self-perceived HIV status of the participant was firmly associated with UAI (OR = 11.70 95 % CI 7.40-18.45). The impact of dating place on UAI differed by HIV status, as can be seen best in Table 5 Table 5 shows the organization of online dating using three different reference classes, one for each HIV status. Among HIV positive guys, UAI was more common in online in comparison to offline ventures (OR = 1.61 95 % CI 1.03-2.50). Among HIV negative men no association was apparent between UAI and on-line ventures (OR = 1.07 95 % CI 0.71-1.62). Among HIV-oblivious men, UAI was more common in online when compared with offline ventures, though not statistically significant (OR = 1.65 95 % CI 0.79-3.44).
Characteristics of online and offline partners and partnerships are shown in Table 2 The median age of the partners was 34years (IQR 28-40). Compared to offline partners, more on-line partners were Dutch (61.3% vs. 54.0%; P 0.001) and were defined as a known partner (77.7% vs. 54.4%; P 0.001). The HIV status of on-line partners was more often reported as understood (61.4% vs. 49.4%; P 0.001), and in on-line ventures, perceived HIV concordance was higher (49.0% vs. 39.8%; P 0.001). Participants reported that their online partners more often knew the HIV status of the participant than offline partners (38.8% vs. 27.2%; P 0.001). Participants more frequently reported multiple sexual contacts with online partners (50.9% vs. 41.3%; P 0.001). Sex-related material use, alcohol use, and group sex were less frequently reported with internet partners.
To be able to examine the potential mediating effect of more information on partners (including perceived HIV status) on UAI, we developed three multivariable models. In model 1, we adapted the association between online/offline dating place and UAI for characteristics of the participant: age, ethnicity, number of sex partners in the preceding 6months, and self-perceived HIV status. In model 2 we added the partnership features (age difference, ethnic concordance, lifestyle concordance, and HIV concordance). In model 3, we adjusted additionally for venture sexual risk behaviour (i.e., sex-associated drug use and sex frequency) and venture kind (i.e., casual or anonymous). As we assumed a differential effect of dating location for HIV positive, HIV negative and HIV status unknown MSM, an interaction between HIV status of the participant and dating place was included in all three models by making a brand new six-class variable. For clarity, the effects of online/offline dating on UAI are also presented individually for HIV negative, HIV-positive, and HIV-unaware guys. Cheap Hookers nearby Taigum, QLD. We performed a sensitivity analysis restricted to partnerships in which just one sexual contact occurred. Statistical significance was defined as P 0.05. No adjustments for multiple comparisons were made, in order not to lose potentially important organizations. As a rather large number of statistical evaluations were done and reported, this strategy does lead to a heightened danger of one or more false positive associations. Analyses were done utilizing the statistical programme STATA, version 13 (STATA Intercooled, College Station, TX, USA).
Prior to the evaluations we developed a directed acyclic graph (DAG) representing a causal model of UAI. In this model some variables were putative causes (self-reported HIV status; online partner acquisition), others were considered as confounders (participants' age, participants' ethnicity, and no. Taigum, Queensland cheap hookers. Cheap Hookers Near Me Gladstone Queensland. of male sex partners in preceding 6months), and some were assumed to be on the causal pathway between the principal exposure of interest and outcome (age difference between participant and partner; ethnic concordance; concordance in life styles; HIV concordance; venture type; sex frequency within partnership; group sex with partner; sex-associated material use in venture).
We compared characteristics of participants by self-reported HIV status (using 2-tests for dichotomous and categorical variables and using rank sum test for continuous variables). We compared characteristics of participants, partners, and partnership sexual behavior by on-line or offline partnership, and computed P values based on logistic regression with robust standard errors, accounting for linked data. Continuous variables (i.e., age, amount of sex partners) are reported as medians with an interquartile range (IQR), and were categorised for inclusion in multivariate models. Random effects logistic regression models were used to analyze the association between dating location (online versus offline) and UAI. Likelihood ratio tests were used to measure the significance of a variable in a model.
As a way to investigate possible disclosure of HIV status we additionally asked the participant whether the casual sex partner understood the HIV status of the participant, with the answer alternatives: (1) no, (2) possibly, (3) yes. Sexual conduct with each partner was dichotomised as: (1) no anal intercourse or just protected anal intercourse, and (2) unprotected anal intercourse. To discover the subculture, we asked whether the participant characterised himself or his partners as belonging to one or more of the following subcultures/lifestyles: casual, formal, alternative, drag, leather, military, sports, trendy, punk/skinhead, rubber/lycra, gothic, bear, jeans, skater, or, if none of these features were related, other. Taigum QLD cheap hookers. Concordant lifestyle was categorised as: (1) concordant; (2) discordant. Chance partner sort was categorised by the participants into (1) known traceable and (2) anonymous partners.
HIV status of the participant was got by asking the question 'Do you know whether you are HIV infected?', with five response options: (1) I 'm definitely not HIV-infected; (2) I believe that I'm not HIV-contaminated; (3) I do not understand; (4) I think I may be HIV-infected; (5) I know for sure that I am HIV-contaminated. We categorised this into HIV negative (1,2), unknown (3), and HIV-positive (4,5) status. The survey enquired about the HIV status of every sex partner with all the question: 'Do you understand whether this partner is HIV-contaminated?' with similar answer choices as above. Perceived concordance in HIV status within ventures was categorised as; (1) concordant; (2) discordant; (3) unknown. The last group represents all partnerships where the participant did not know his own status, or the status of his partner, or both. In this study the HIV status of the participant is self-reported and self-perceived. The HIV status of the sexual partner is as perceived by the participant.
Participants completed a standardised anonymous questionnaire throughout their visit to the STI outpatient clinic while waiting for preliminary evaluation results after their consultation with a nurse or physician. The questionnaire elicited information on socio-demographics and HIV status of the participant, the three most recent partners in the preceding six months, and data on sexual behavior with those partners. A detailed description of the study design and also the survey is provided elsewhere 15 , 18 Our chief determinant of interest, dating location (e.g., the name of a bar, park, club, or the name of a site) was obtained for every partner, and categorised into on-line (websites), and offline (physical sites) dating locations. To simplify the terminology of differentiating the partners per dating location, we refer to them as on-line or offline partners.
We used data from a cross sectional study focusing on spread of STI via sexual networks 15 Between July 2008 and August 2009 MSM were recruited from the STI outpatient clinic of the Public Health Service of Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Men were eligible for participation if they reported sexual contact with men during the six months preceding the STI consultation, they were at least 18years old, and could comprehend written Dutch or English. Individuals could participate more than once, if following visits to the practice were related to a possible new STI episode. Participants were regularly screened for STI/HIV according to the standard procedures of the STI outpatient clinic 15 , 17 The study was approved by the medical ethics committee of the Academic Medical Center of Amsterdam (MEC 07/181), and written informed consent was obtained from each participant. Contained in this evaluation were guys who reported sexual contact with at least one casual partner dated online as well one casual partner dated offline. Cheap Hookers Near Me Hamilton Queensland.
With increased acquaintance in sexual partnerships, for example by concordant ethnicity, age, lifestyle, HIV status, and raising sex frequency, the odds for UAI increase as well 14 - 16 We compared the incidence of UAI in online acquired casual partnerships to that in offline acquired casual partnerships among MSM who reported both online and offline casual partners in the preceding six months. Cheap hookers closest to Queensland. We hypothesised that MSM who date sex partners both online and offline, report more UAI with the casual partners they date online, and that this effect is partly described through better knowledge of partner characteristics, including HIV status.